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Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): Introduction 

What is cancer?

Your body is made up of tiny building blocks called cells. Normal cells grow when your body needs them, and die when your body does not need them any longer. Cancer happens when cells in the body change and grow out of control. Abnormal cells grow even though your body doesn’t need them. In most types of cancer, the abnormal cells grow to form a lump or mass called a tumor.

What is leukemia?

Leukemia is different from most other types of cancer. Leukemia is cancer that starts in the bone marrow. This is where new blood cells are made. Leukemia cells are early forms of blood cells, most often white blood cells. When a person has leukemia, the body makes too many abnormal blood cells. Leukemia cells do not usually form tumors, but they can travel with the blood all over the body. That means leukemia can affect organs all over the body.

Two types of white blood cells can turn into leukemia:

  • Lymphoid cells (lymphocytes). This is called lymphocytic leukemia.

  • Myeloid cells (myelocytes). This is called myeloid or myelogenous leukemia.

Leukemia can also be either acute or chronic. Acute leukemia tends to grow very quickly and needs to be treated right away. Chronic leukemia often grows more slowly.

What is chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)?

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a type of leukemia that starts in myeloid cells in the bone marrow.  It’s also known as chronic myelogenous leukemia. It starts in cells that normally help the body fight infections.

There is a change in a chromosome in the cells of almost all patients with CML. The change is called the Philadelphia chromosome. It creates an abnormal gene called BCR-ABL. This causes the leukemia cells to grow out of control.

As the leukemia cells grow, they can crowd out the normal cells in the bone marrow. This can lead to not enough of different types of blood cells. People with CML have too many white blood cells in their blood.

CML is a type of chronic leukemia. This means it tends to grow slowly. CML does not always cause symptoms right away. Some people with CML have no symptoms when CML is diagnosed.

Talk with your healthcare provider

If you have questions about CML, talk with your healthcare provider. Your healthcare provider can help you understand more about this type of leukemia.